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        “雨果獎”得主的閱讀習慣養成記,所有爸媽都應該看看

        2016-09-17 20:40:00
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        爸爸媽媽們經常探討孩子的閱讀習慣怎么培養從中高考的拉分中可以看出語文的重要地位,而學好語文的最佳方式就是閱讀,而良好的閱讀習慣也將使娃們受益一生。

        “雨果獎”得主郝景芳給我們分享了一篇她的閱讀心得,從3歲時期的閱讀啟蒙到初高中的閱讀培養,根據自己不同的年齡段的閱讀方式以及閱讀特點做了詳細的分享。

        她說她是個幸運的孩子,成長基本上是良好環境+野蠻生長。這是也是她目前較為認可的教養方式。 她說:“ 就讀書而言,我胃口饕餮 ”

        第一個階段:十歲前

        散漫的閱讀,內心的需求是想象

        閱讀的第一個階段是從出生到十歲, 源于天生的好奇,想要好玩的世界。 我是一個閱讀啟蒙非常早的小孩,從一兩歲開始,母親就給我讀書,那時候沒有繪本,就只聽故事。《三百六十五夜故事》 幾乎讀爛了。

        聽得多了,就想讀,于是開始認字。三歲半的時候,每篇能讀出第一段。識字早的好處是閱讀很早就獨立,一年級之后,母親幾乎不再干預。不僅是內容選擇上基本不插手,而且對于看不看、看幾本也不干預。 如果不管,孩子會不會就不看書呢?對我而言,看書不是外界要求,而是能契合那時那刻的內心需要。

        二年級有人送我一本 《一千零一夜》 ,三年級迷上 《紅色童話》 及其他童話。童話仍然是最愛,因為愛王子公主,那是一種“未來很美好”的迷離期待。再后來囫圇吞棗看了各種學科,有其他人送我一套 《中國通史》 ,家里還有 《十萬個為什么》 ,沒看懂太多,就知道世界很大。

        有一些知識讓我震驚,比如中子星,那是我對浩瀚宇宙最早的驚鴻一瞥。 整個這個階段的閱讀都是散漫的,也讀過很多難看的故事,也不介意。內心的需求是想象:世界很神奇,我是神奇世界的小小公主。

        第二個階段:十三、四歲

        眼花繚亂的滿足,開始帶入自我

        十歲之后的閱讀進入另一個階段,開始代入自我角色,開始向往愛。 讀紅樓夢是一個很偶然的機會,四年級得到一本金陵十二釵的畫冊,臨摹畫冊多了,就想去看看故事。紅樓夢原著四本 ,完完整整讀完。我當時不知道這是一部偉大的書,只是喜歡看美女,喜歡命運的冊子。(所以,顏值高real重要。) 代入感最強的是黛玉,覺得她好,又替她著急,為何不懂口頭讓人,最終記住的是她為“知己”付出生命。

        后來就開始迷戀有愛情的故事,開始關心自己是誰,喜歡什么人。 四年級隨父母去英國居住近一年,這是我非常幸運遇到的資源。小學放學極早,就去市立圖書館,圖書館的中文圖書部比國內都大。

        第一本讀到的書是縮寫版 《簡.愛》 ,當時真是震撼:那樣的愛的尊嚴。(當然瘋女人的秘密也很吸引人。)后來繼續尋找愛情,讀中文縮寫版 《雙城記》、《蝴蝶夢》、《呼嘯山莊》 。那里面都有陰森森的懸疑和愛的模板,喜歡瑞貝卡;希斯克里夫瘋魔又迷人。

        因為喜歡陰森懸案,開始讀偵探小說。從 一本波洛 開始,迷上了克里斯蒂。一周借五本,廢寢忘食不能自已。 在英國的余下幾個月,完全沉浸于此,把圖書館的 全部克里斯蒂 都借光了, 福爾摩斯 也讀完了,感覺生無可戀。偵探小說是我第一個入迷的類型文學。

        回國之后,仍然喜歡讀愛情故事,也是不挑選,從地攤上買很多書看。 十一二歲年紀,喜歡瑪麗蘇的故事,印象深刻的是一本舊雜志上的小說,講個土土的姑娘進入遠房親戚豪門,減肥、學會穿搭,變得美麗清純,豪門闊少不愛其他美女,就愛主人公。那簡直是又胖又土的我最愛的故事。

        后來偶然間發現街上的租書店,開始看 漫畫 ,從漫畫中尋找新的世界。漫畫滿足了更多對唯美之愛的想象,微笑的男主人公成了我對愛人的期待。看得多了,就喜歡臨摹,臨摹美女,喜歡齊藤千惠,跟她學習文藝復興。

        漫畫五毛錢一本,暑假每天五六本,省吃儉用的錢,全用來租漫畫。到最后街上所有租書店都租了一遍,再也找不到什么值得看下去的漫畫。 于是開始 租武俠、租言情、租商戰 。看完金庸,看完古龍,看幾本其他 。看完武俠不再迷戀漫畫的柔美,對未來的想象也變成如何行走江湖。

        很多年后再回頭看,都是心的階段,對自我、對愛情、對江湖的想象,在十三四歲達到了眼花繚亂的滿足,大學階段讀類似的,已經覺得無味。

        第三個階段:初高中

        找尋文字的力量,想提高自我

        閱讀的第三個階段不再代入角色,開始關心書外的自我:想提高自我。 初中是我第二個幸運的資源環境,遇到一位語文老師,溫柔而有才,班里幾個朋友形成很好的閱讀氛圍,也相互寫文章,如文人會友傳看。 那個時候想看一些更有趣的人,讀過三毛,讀過沈從文,讀過張愛玲。

        老師推薦了一位新銳作者叫余杰, 《火與冰》 很尖銳,談到政治時事。成年后回顧,能看出其中許多缺陷,但它在少年心里播下對政治的興趣。到了高中,渴望更新奇的視野。言情武俠漫畫看多了,都已厭倦,紙上的愛情畢竟不如生活中有趣。雅致情調的舊式文人也無法滿足,開始尋找更新、更變幻的文字。

        最初看了一些流行, 《挪威的森林》 、《生命中不能承受之輕》 ,但都覺得不完全觸動到我。 直到有一次讀到 《看不見的城市》 ,卡爾維諾像是給我打開了一片天。后來再看 《百年孤獨》 簡直驚艷,《一九八四》 也是那時候進入視野。那時候才知道好文學的樣子。 于是重新讀一些文學的原著版本。看到小時候看不到的,文字的力量。

        父母的寬容是我的幸運

        從幼年到中學的閱讀大致如此, 大學之后開始閱讀更多門類,讀哲學、科學、歷史、更多小說,那是后話,以后有機會再寫。 現在想說的是,對我個人而言,從新奇到代入感,再到自我提升,這幾個階段是蹦不過、繞不開的。 最初的十幾年對人生角色的好奇,轉化為對一切戲劇感的囫圇的愛,直到過了這階段,才懂文學旁觀。

        由此,父母的寬松是我的幸運,安全環境、充足資源、野蠻生長。他們給予環境,但從未設定要求。 我從未要求自己脫離幼稚的興趣, 最終只是 內心的需求 ,推我前行。 對閱讀而言,這是我最看重的事。

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